|1841||Augustin-Louis Cauchy Proposes a Sampling Theorem.|
|1842||Charles Babbage Proposes analytical engine for performing and
|1854||George Boole publishes “An Investigation into the Laws of Thought.”
A book that contained, among other things, theories that were later used to
build digital circuits.
|1855||Leon Scott de Martinville invents the phonoautograph, a machine that
records vibrations on a carbonized paper cylinder.
|1876||Alexander Graham Bell introduces the telephone|
|1877||Thomas Edison invents the phonograph while trying to invent a
device that would record and repeat telegraphic signals (digital)
|1887||Emily Berliner replaces Edison’s wax cylinder phonograph with the
|1915||78 R.P.M records introduced|
|1922||J.R. Carson examines the idea of time sampling for communications|
|1928||Harry Nyquiest publishes “Certain Topics in Telegraph Transmission
Theory.” His theory contained proof that the technology used in today’s
audio CDs could work.
33 1/3 Records Introduced
|1937||A. Reeves invents pulse code modulation (PCM), a technology used
by computers and CD’s for audio in the present day.
H. Aiken from Harvard approaches IBM and proposes an electrical
|1943||The U.S. Army turns on the first computer (ENIAC) at the University
|1947||Magnetic Tape Recorders hit the U.S. market.|
|1948||The transistor is invented by Bell Laboratories.
Claude E. Shannon publishes “A Mathematical Theory of Communication.”
— Yet another important development for theories used in CD technology
|1949||45 rpm records hit the U.S. market, thanks to microgroove
|1950||Richard W. Hamming publishes information about error
detection/correction codes. It would be impossible for CD’s to work without
|1958||Invention of the Laser.
Stereo LP’s produced.
Integrated Circuit introduced by Texas Instruments
|1960||Computer Music experiments take place at major laboratories.
I.S. Reed and G. Soloman publish information on multiple error correction
codes. These come to be known as the “Reed-Solomon” Codes which are
the codes used for encoding and reading CD’s.
Working Laser produced.
|1967||NHK Technical Research Institute demonstrates a 12-bit PCM digital
audio recorder with a 30 kHz (30,000 times per second) sampling rate. The
digital recording goes onto a high-grade video tape.
|1969||Sony introduces its 13-bit PCM digital recorder at a 47.25 kHz (47,250
times per second) sampling rate. The digital recording is sent to a 2″ video
tape. Class Company, a Dutch physicist comes up with the idea for the Compact
|1970||At Philips, Company and Pete Kramer complete a glass disc
prototype and determine that a laser will be needed to read the information.
|1971||Microprocessor produced by Intel
Digital Delay line used by BBC’s studios (first digital audio device).
|1972||Company and Kramer produce color prototype of this new compact
|1973||BBC and other broadcast companies start installing digital recorders
for master recordings.
|1977||Mitsubishi, Hitachi & Sony show digital audio disc prototypes at the
Tokyo Audio Fair. JVC Develops Digital Audio Process
|1978||Philips releases the video disc player
Sony sells the PCM-1600 and PCM-1 (digital audio processors)
“Digital Audio Disc Convention” Held in Tokyo, Japan with 35 different
Philips proposes that a worldwide standard be set.
PolyGram (division of Philips) determined that polycarbonate would be the
best material for the CD.
Decision made for data on a CD to start on the inside and spiral towards
the outer edge.
Disc diameter originally set at 115mm.
Type of laser selected for CD Players.
|1979||Prototype CD System demonstrated in Europe and Japan.
Sony agrees to join in collaboration.
Sony & Philips compromise on the standard sampling rate of a CD — 44.1
kHz (44,100 samples per second)
Philips accepts Sony’s proposal for 16-bit audio.
Reed-Solomon code adopted after Sony’s suggestion.
Maximum playing time decided to be slightly more that 74 minutes.
Disc diameter changed to 120mm to allow for 74 minutes of 16-bit stereo
sound with a sample rate of 44.1 kHz
|1980||Compact Disc standard proposed by Philips & Sony.|
|1981||Matsushita accepts Compact Disc Standard
Digital Audio Disc Committee also accepts Compact Disc Standard.
Sharp achieves production of semiconductor laser.
Philips & Sony collaboration ends.
|1982||Sony & Philips both have product ready to go.
Compact Disc Technology is introduced to Europe and Japan in the fall.
|1983||Compact Disc Technology is introduced in the United States in the
The Compact Disc Group formed to help market.
CD-ROM Prototypes shown to public
30,000 Players sold in the U.S.
800,000 CD’s sold in the U.S.
|1984||Second Generation & Car CD players introduced.
First Mass Replication Plant in the United States built.
Portable (i.e., Sony Discman) CD Players sold.
|1985||Third generation CD Players released.
CD-ROM drives hit the computer market.
|1986||CD-I (Interactive CD) concept created.
3 Million Players sold in U.S.
53 Million CD’s sold in U.S.
|1987||Video CD format created.
Allen Adkins of Optical Media International joins with SonoPress in
Amsterdam and demonstrates a desktop system for pre-mastering CD’s
(Adkins and SonoPress, produced a replicated CD in less than 24-hours
using this system).
|1988||CD-Recordable Disc/Recorder Technology Introduced|
|1990||28% of all U.S. households have CD’s.
9.2 million players sold annually in the United States.
288 million CD’s sold annually in the United States.
World Sales close to 1 Billion
|1991||CD-I format achieved.
CD-Recordable Introduced to the Market
“QuickTopix” the first CD-R pre-mastering Software introduced by Allen
|1992||CD-R Sales reach 200,000|
|1996||DVD Technology Introduced.
Prices of Recorders and CD-R Media go down significantly.
High Demands cause World-Wide CD-R Media Shortage.
DVD Players/Movies hit consumer market.
DVD-R standard created (3.9 Gig).
Mitsui builds its first CD-R production plant in the U.S.
World-wide shortage ends.
Price of CD-R media lower than ever imagined.
|1998||DVD-RAM, DVD-Recordable systems/equipment hits market.
DVD-Video/ROM authoring tools hits the market.
CD-R prices continue to drop.
|1999||DVD-Video Becomes main stream.
Consumers begin purchasing DVD Players & Movies on a mass level.
Most major film studios have titles on DVD.
DIVX Dies (Digital Video eXpress).
Second Generation DVD Burners.
4.7 Gig DVD-R Media Developed.