History of CD Technology

1841 Augustin-Louis Cauchy Proposes a Sampling Theorem.
1842 Charles Babbage Proposes analytical engine for performing and

storing calculations.

1854 George Boole publishes “An Investigation into the Laws of Thought.”

A book that contained, among other things, theories that were later used to

build digital circuits.

1855 Leon Scott de Martinville invents the phonoautograph, a machine that

records vibrations on a carbonized paper cylinder.

1876 Alexander Graham Bell introduces the telephone
1877 Thomas Edison invents the phonograph while trying to invent a

device that would record and repeat telegraphic signals (digital)

1887 Emily Berliner replaces Edison’s wax cylinder phonograph with the

audio disc.

1915 78 R.P.M records introduced
1922 J.R. Carson examines the idea of time sampling for communications
1928 Harry Nyquiest publishes “Certain Topics in Telegraph Transmission

Theory.” His theory contained proof that the technology used in today’s

audio CDs could work.

33 1/3 Records Introduced

1937 A. Reeves invents pulse code modulation (PCM), a technology used

by computers and CD’s for audio in the present day.

H. Aiken from Harvard approaches IBM and proposes an electrical

computing machine.

1943 The U.S. Army turns on the first computer (ENIAC) at the University

of Pennsylvania.

1947 Magnetic Tape Recorders hit the U.S. market.
1948 The transistor is invented by Bell Laboratories.

Claude E. Shannon publishes “A Mathematical Theory of Communication.”

— Yet another important development for theories used in CD technology

1949 45 rpm records hit the U.S. market, thanks to microgroove

technology.

1950 Richard W. Hamming publishes information about error

detection/correction codes. It would be impossible for CD’s to work without

error correction.

1958 Invention of the Laser.

Stereo LP’s produced.

Integrated Circuit introduced by Texas Instruments

1960 Computer Music experiments take place at major laboratories.

I.S. Reed and G. Soloman publish information on multiple error correction

codes. These come to be known as the “Reed-Solomon” Codes which are

the codes used for encoding and reading CD’s.

Working Laser produced.

1967 NHK Technical Research Institute demonstrates a 12-bit PCM digital

audio recorder with a 30 kHz (30,000 times per second) sampling rate. The

digital recording goes onto a high-grade video tape.

1969 Sony introduces its 13-bit PCM digital recorder at a 47.25 kHz (47,250

times per second) sampling rate. The digital recording is sent to a 2″ video

tape. Class Company, a Dutch physicist comes up with the idea for the Compact

Disc.

1970 At Philips, Company and Pete Kramer complete a glass disc

prototype and determine that a laser will be needed to read the information.

1971 Microprocessor produced by Intel
Digital Delay line used by BBC’s studios (first digital audio device).
1972 Company and Kramer produce color prototype of this new compact

disc technology

1973 BBC and other broadcast companies start installing digital recorders

for master recordings.

1977 Mitsubishi, Hitachi & Sony show digital audio disc prototypes at the

Tokyo Audio Fair. JVC Develops Digital Audio Process

1978 Philips releases the video disc player

Sony sells the PCM-1600 and PCM-1 (digital audio processors)

“Digital Audio Disc Convention” Held in Tokyo, Japan with 35 different

manufacturers.

Philips proposes that a worldwide standard be set.

PolyGram (division of Philips) determined that polycarbonate would be the

best material for the CD.

Decision made for data on a CD to start on the inside and spiral towards

the outer edge.

Disc diameter originally set at 115mm.

Type of laser selected for CD Players.

1979 Prototype CD System demonstrated in Europe and Japan.

Sony agrees to join in collaboration.

Sony & Philips compromise on the standard sampling rate of a CD — 44.1

kHz (44,100 samples per second)

Philips accepts Sony’s proposal for 16-bit audio.

Reed-Solomon code adopted after Sony’s suggestion.

Maximum playing time decided to be slightly more that 74 minutes.

Disc diameter changed to 120mm to allow for 74 minutes of 16-bit stereo

sound with a sample rate of 44.1 kHz

1980 Compact Disc standard proposed by Philips & Sony.
1981 Matsushita accepts Compact Disc Standard

Digital Audio Disc Committee also accepts Compact Disc Standard.

Sharp achieves production of semiconductor laser.

Philips & Sony collaboration ends.

1982 Sony & Philips both have product ready to go.

Compact Disc Technology is introduced to Europe and Japan in the fall.

1983 Compact Disc Technology is introduced in the United States in the

spring

The Compact Disc Group formed to help market.

CD-ROM Prototypes shown to public

30,000 Players sold in the U.S.

800,000 CD’s sold in the U.S.

1984 Second Generation & Car CD players introduced.

First Mass Replication Plant in the United States built.

Portable (i.e., Sony Discman) CD Players sold.

1985 Third generation CD Players released.

CD-ROM drives hit the computer market.

1986 CD-I (Interactive CD) concept created.

3 Million Players sold in U.S.

53 Million CD’s sold in U.S.

1987 Video CD format created.

Allen Adkins of Optical Media International joins with SonoPress in

Amsterdam and demonstrates a desktop system for pre-mastering CD’s

(Adkins and SonoPress, produced a replicated CD in less than 24-hours

using this system).

1988 CD-Recordable Disc/Recorder Technology Introduced
1990 28% of all U.S. households have CD’s.

9.2 million players sold annually in the United States.

288 million CD’s sold annually in the United States.

World Sales close to 1 Billion

1991 CD-I format achieved.

CD-Recordable Introduced to the Market

“QuickTopix” the first CD-R pre-mastering Software introduced by Allen

Adkins.

1992 CD-R Sales reach 200,000
1996 DVD Technology Introduced.

Prices of Recorders and CD-R Media go down significantly.

High Demands cause World-Wide CD-R Media Shortage.

1997 DVD Released.

DVD Players/Movies hit consumer market.

DVD-R standard created (3.9 Gig).

Mitsui builds its first CD-R production plant in the U.S.

World-wide shortage ends.

Price of CD-R media lower than ever imagined.

1998 DVD-RAM, DVD-Recordable systems/equipment hits market.

DVD-Video/ROM authoring tools hits the market.

CD-R prices continue to drop.

1999 DVD-Video Becomes main stream.

Consumers begin purchasing DVD Players & Movies on a mass level.

Most major film studios have titles on DVD.

DIVX Dies (Digital Video eXpress).

Second Generation DVD Burners.

4.7 Gig DVD-R Media Developed.

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